LarryDpk
发布于 2022-11-21 / 262 阅读
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在Spring Boot中整合Katharsis,来快速开发JSON API的Web应用

1 简介

我们进行Web API开发的时候,经常会使用Json格式的消息体,而Json格式非常灵活,不同的人会有不同的设计风格和实现,而JSON API提供了一套标准。但它并不提供直接实现。

Katharsis是JSON API的Java实现,使用它可以快速开发出Json based的Web接口,还能快速的整合到Spring中。今天我们就来试试如何在Spring Boot中使用Katharsis。

2 整合过程

2.1 添加依赖

我们在Spring Boot中添加依赖如下,包括常规的starter、jpa和h2,而整合Katharsis只需要katharsis-spring即可。

<dependencies>
  <dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
  </dependency>
  <dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
  </dependency>
  <dependency>
    <groupId>com.h2database</groupId>
    <artifactId>h2</artifactId>
  </dependency>
  <dependency>
    <groupId>io.katharsis</groupId>
    <artifactId>katharsis-spring</artifactId>
    <version>3.0.2</version>
  </dependency>
</dependencies>

2.2 Entity类

我们定义两个Entity,一个是学生,一个是教室,而教室对象会包含多个学生。

学生:

@JsonApiResource(type = "students")
@Entity
@Data
@Builder
@NoArgsConstructor
@AllArgsConstructor
public class Student {
    @JsonApiId
    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.AUTO)
    private Long id;
    private String name;
}

教室:

@JsonApiResource(type = "classrooms")
@Entity
@Data
@Builder
@NoArgsConstructor
@AllArgsConstructor
public class Classroom {
    @JsonApiId
    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.AUTO)
    private Long id;
    private String name;

    @ManyToMany(fetch = FetchType.EAGER)
    @JoinTable(name = "classrooms_students", joinColumns = @JoinColumn(name = "classroom_id", referencedColumnName = "id"), inverseJoinColumns = @JoinColumn(name = "student_id", referencedColumnName = "id"))
    @JsonApiRelation(serialize= SerializeType.EAGER)
    private Set<Student> students;
}

注解JsonApiResource这个会指定资源名称,这个会影响api的URL,注解JsonApiId则指定资源的id。

2.3 资源操作类

Katharsis使用ResourceRepository来对资源进行增删改查操作,这个跟数据库的增删改查类似,但属于更高一层。抽象到资源RESTful的资源层面,然后再调用数据库的Repository来操作,这里统一实现ResourceRepositoryV2接口。

@Component
public class StudentResourceRepository implements ResourceRepositoryV2<Student, Long> {

    private final StudentRepository studentRepository;

    public StudentResourceRepository(StudentRepository studentRepository) {
        this.studentRepository = studentRepository;
    }

    @Override
    public Student findOne(Long id, QuerySpec querySpec) {
        Optional<Student> student = studentRepository.findById(id);
        return student.orElse(null);
    }

    @Override
    public ResourceList<Student> findAll(QuerySpec querySpec) {
        return querySpec.apply(studentRepository.findAll());
    }

    @Override
    public ResourceList<Student> findAll(Iterable<Long> ids, QuerySpec querySpec) {
        return querySpec.apply(studentRepository.findAllById(ids));
    }

    @Override
    public <S extends Student> S save(S entity) {
        return studentRepository.save(entity);
    }

    @Override
    public void delete(Long id) {
        studentRepository.deleteById(id);
    }

    @Override
    public Class<Student> getResourceClass() {
        return Student.class;
    }

    @Override
    public <S extends Student> S create(S entity) {
        return save(entity);
    }

}

而数据库方面我们使用JPA实现即可:

public interface StudentRepository extends JpaRepository<Student, Long> {
}

上面的代码是针对Student资源类型的,对Classroom类似,就不把代码列出来了。

2.4 配置

为了使用Katharsis,我们需要在配置中引入KatharsisConfigV3,我们直接在Spring Boot启动类中引入即可:

@SpringBootApplication
@Import(KatharsisConfigV3.class)
public class KatharsisExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(KatharsisExample.class, args);
    }
}

Spring Boot的配置文件如下:

server.port=8080
server.servlet.context-path=/

katharsis.domainName=https://www.pkslow.com
katharsis.pathPrefix=/api/katharsis

spring.datasource.url = jdbc:h2:mem:springKatharsis;DB_CLOSE_DELAY=-1
spring.datasource.username = sa
spring.datasource.password =

spring.jpa.show-sql = true
spring.jpa.hibernate.ddl-auto = create-drop
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.dialect = org.hibernate.dialect.H2Dialect
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.globally_quoted_identifiers=true

katharsis.pathPrefix是URL前缀,而katharsis.domainName会影响Self Link等返回。

2.5 初始化数据

为了方便测试,初始化一些数据进行查询:

@Component
public class InitData {

    private final ClassroomRepository classroomRepository;

    private final StudentRepository studentRepository;

    public InitData(ClassroomRepository classroomRepository, StudentRepository studentRepository) {
        this.classroomRepository = classroomRepository;
        this.studentRepository = studentRepository;
    }

    @PostConstruct
    private void setupData() {
        Set<Student> students = new HashSet<>();
        Student student = Student.builder().name("Larry Deng").build();
        students.add(student);
        studentRepository.save(student);
        student = Student.builder().name("Eason").build();
        students.add(student);
        studentRepository.save(student);
        student = Student.builder().name("JJ Lin").build();
        students.add(student);
        studentRepository.save(student);

        Classroom classroom = Classroom.builder().name("Classroom No.1").students(students)
                .build();
        classroomRepository.save(classroom);
    }
}

至此则整合完毕了。

3 测试

整合完后启动,就可以用curl或Postman开始测试了:

查询一个student:

$ curl http://localhost:8080/api/katharsis/students/1 | jq .
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100   139    0   139    0     0   9828      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 23166
{
  "data": {
    "id": "1",
    "type": "students",
    "attributes": {
      "name": "Larry Deng"
    },
    "links": {
      "self": "https://www.pkslow.com/api/katharsis/students/1"
    }
  }
}

查询多个student:

$ curl http://localhost:8080/api/katharsis/students | jq .
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100   429    0   429    0     0   3633      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--  3830
{
  "data": [
    {
      "id": "1",
      "type": "students",
      "attributes": {
        "name": "Larry Deng"
      },
      "links": {
        "self": "https://www.pkslow.com/api/katharsis/students/1"
      }
    },
    {
      "id": "2",
      "type": "students",
      "attributes": {
        "name": "Eason"
      },
      "links": {
        "self": "https://www.pkslow.com/api/katharsis/students/2"
      }
    },
    {
      "id": "3",
      "type": "students",
      "attributes": {
        "name": "JJ Lin"
      },
      "links": {
        "self": "https://www.pkslow.com/api/katharsis/students/3"
      }
    }
  ],
  "meta": {
    "totalResourceCount": null
  }
}

查询一个教室:

$ curl http://localhost:8080/api/katharsis/classrooms/4 | jq .
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100   834    0   834    0     0  62462      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--  116k
{
  "data": {
    "id": "4",
    "type": "classrooms",
    "attributes": {
      "name": "Classroom No.1"
    },
    "relationships": {
      "students": {
        "data": [
          {
            "id": "3",
            "type": "students"
          },
          {
            "id": "2",
            "type": "students"
          },
          {
            "id": "1",
            "type": "students"
          }
        ],
        "links": {
          "self": "https://www.pkslow.com/api/katharsis/classrooms/4/relationships/students",
          "related": "https://www.pkslow.com/api/katharsis/classrooms/4/students"
        }
      }
    },
    "links": {
      "self": "https://www.pkslow.com/api/katharsis/classrooms/4"
    }
  },
  "included": [
    {
      "id": "1",
      "type": "students",
      "attributes": {
        "name": "Larry Deng"
      },
      "links": {
        "self": "https://www.pkslow.com/api/katharsis/students/1"
      }
    },
    {
      "id": "2",
      "type": "students",
      "attributes": {
        "name": "Eason"
      },
      "links": {
        "self": "https://www.pkslow.com/api/katharsis/students/2"
      }
    },
    {
      "id": "3",
      "type": "students",
      "attributes": {
        "name": "JJ Lin"
      },
      "links": {
        "self": "https://www.pkslow.com/api/katharsis/students/3"
      }
    }
  ]
}

新增一个学生:

$ curl --header "Content-Type: application/json"   --request POST   --data '{
    "data": {
        "type": "students",
        "attributes": {
            "name": "Justin"
        }
    }
}'   http://localhost:8080/api/katharsis/students | jq .

  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100   249    0   135  100   114  11202   9459 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 41500
{
  "data": {
    "id": "6",
    "type": "students",
    "attributes": {
      "name": "Justin"
    },
    "links": {
      "self": "https://www.pkslow.com/api/katharsis/students/6"
    }
  }
}

修改:

$ curl --header "Content-Type: application/json"   --request PATCH   --data '{
    "data": {
        "id":"6",
        "type": "students",
        "attributes": {
            "name": "Justin Wu"
        }
    }
}'   http://localhost:8080/api/katharsis/students/6 | jq .
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100   273    0   138  100   135   4425   4329 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 10920
{
  "data": {
    "id": "6",
    "type": "students",
    "attributes": {
      "name": "Justin Wu"
    },
    "links": {
      "self": "https://www.pkslow.com/api/katharsis/students/6"
    }
  }
}

删除:

$ curl --header "Content-Type: application/json"   --request DELETE   --data '{
    "data": {
        "id":"6",
        "type": "students",
        "attributes": {
            "name": "Justin Wu"
        }
    }
}'   http://localhost:8080/api/katharsis/students/6 | jq .

至此,我们已经覆盖了增删改查操作了。而我们在代码中并没有去写我们之前常写的Controller,却可以访问对应接口。因为Katharsis默认已经帮我们实现了,可以查看类:io.katharsis.core.internal.dispatcher.ControllerRegistry

4 代码

代码请看GitHub: https://github.com/LarryDpk/pkslow-samples


References:

JSON API Implementations

JSON API - Spring Boot Katharsis Example

JSON API in a Spring Application